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Figure 3. Em geral, pensamos que The dichotomous key allows one to differentiate four types of savanna forested, wooded, park, and grassy-woodland. Journal of Medical Entomology 42 4 : All 42 epiphytic yeasts obtained were used for direct antagonism essays against the phytopathogens A. Biota Neotropica 10 3 : Comércio Gótico Negrito Condensado. Hansen, Penicillium citrinum Thom, C. As chamadas e diferentes seções aparecem bem diferenciadas na capa. A total of 42 volatile constituents were identified in the root, with Pentadecanal, Veratryl alcohol, Palmitic acid, and 2-Decanone as the major components. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80 13 : The isolated yeasts were stored in cryogenic vials with GYMP medium 0. Acta Botanica Brasilica 20 1 : ZENG, K. Nove espécies foram determinadas somente até o nível de gênero Apêndice. LIU, A. For any dose of inoculants, the highest density of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria was obtained in soil inoculated with inoculant MSWCf. Novel floral scent compounds from night-blooming Araceae pollinated by Cyclocephaline scarabs Melolonthidae, Cyclocephalini. Chemosphere 90 3 : MAIA, S.

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Fungal biodiversity profiles The evolution of fungal epiphytes. Mycosphere 7 11 : HYDE, K. LIU, H. DAI, P. LI, Y. LIU, R. PANG, R. WU, Y. BHAT, E. KANG, K. LI, X. LI, Z. LIU, A. RAJA, C. TIAN, S. WANG, J. XU, S. ZHANG, Families of Dothideomycetes.


Fungal Diversity 63 1 : baixarER, Yeasts associated with nectarines and their potential for biological control of brown rot. Yeast 27 7 : KÖHL, J. BLUM, Stepwise screening of microorganisms for commercial use in biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Biological Control 57 1 : The yeasts: a taxonomic study: 5. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. LI, G. HYDE, R. ZHAO, S. BEUG, D. BHAT, D. BORO, O. CHEN, K. CUI, D. DAI, Y. DAI, D. DAS, M. Fungal diversity notes taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa.

Fungal Diversity 78 1 : HEIL, The microbe-free plant: fact or artefact? Frontiers in Plant Science 2: Bacteria and fungi controlling plant growth by manipulating auxin: balance between development and defense. Journal of Plant Physiology Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges.

Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 41 2 : Wars between microbes on roots and fruits. F Research 6: PATIL, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 10 3 : NUNES, Metschnikowia andauensis as a new biocontrol agent of fruit postharvest diseases.

Postharvest Biology and Technology 61 1 : MENG, X. TIAN, Influences of preharvest spraying Cryptococcus laurentii combined with postharvest chitosan coating on postharvest diseases and quality of table grapes in storage.

CRAGG, Frontiers in Chemistry 3: NISA, H. BANDH, Fungal endophytes as prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products: a review. Microbial Pathogenesis Selection on soil microbiome reveals reproducible impacts on plant function. Antagonistic effects of Saccharomyces cerevisae on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus at varying temperatures. Mycology 4 1 : Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 40 1 : Acta Scientiarum Agronomy 32 3 : HYDE, E. LI, R. RAJA, E. SANO, L. WOOD, J. A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes.

Studies in Mycology 64 S10 : Postharvest technology—yeast as biocontrol agents: progress, problems and prospects. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould. Fungal Biology 11 : HORN, Epiphytes improve host plant water use by microenvironment modification. Functional Ecology 28 5 : Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

Journal of Applied Microbiology 1 : WU, H. A reappraisal of Microthyriaceae. Fungal Diversity 51 1 : SUN, L. ZHAO, X. Investigating proteome and transcriptome defense response of apples induced by Yarrowia lipolytica. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 30 4 : KÖHL, W.

Biological control using invertebrates and microorganisms: plenty of new opportunities. BioControl 63 1 : Abstract: Microbial activity can be stimulated to remove soil hydrocarbons after the introduction of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms on the environment. We developed microbial inoculants produced from municipal solid waste compost MSWC for the bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soils. Diesel application occurred every 4 days for inoculant A and every 8 days for inoculant B.

Respirometric analysis, total heterotrophic bacteria count, and evaluation of residual total petroleum hydrocarbons TPH were performed. The inoculants were evaluated immediately after production and after storage either at room temperature or under refrigeration. At this concentration, biodegradation of TPH ranged from After storage, efficiency of inoculant A reached TPH degradation rates of Inoculant B showed significant decrease of efficiency after storage, especially at room temperature.

The addition of inoculants significantly increased the density of culturable bacteria in soil contaminated with diesel, even after storage. Keywords: Bioremediation. Hydrocarbonoclastic populations. Soil contamination. LEAL, A. Microbial inoculants produced from solid waste compost for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soils. Autor para correspondência: Edmo Montes Rodrigues. Universidade Federal de Viçosa.


Departamento de Microbiologia. Laboratório de Biotecnologia e Biodiversidade para o Meio Ambiente. Viçosa, MG, Brasil.

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CEP edmomontes yahoo. The recovery of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments has been intensively studied and diverse technologies have emerged to overcome the increasing number of contaminated sites Gogoi et al. Petroleum derivatives such as diesel oil are of great economic importance.

Accidental releases of these derivatives due to faults in underground storage tanks are a common cause of contamination of soil and groundwater in Brazil Bento et al. Bioremediation techniques are used to accelerate the biodegradation of contaminants and the rehabilitation of the contaminated environment Roling et al. Biostimulation is adopted when indigenous microorganisms have the potential to degrade the contaminants, but their activity is limited by environmental factors water activity, pH, mineral nutrients availability,.

However, bioaugmentation strategy may be necessary when the indigenous microorganisms cannot metabolize the contaminants or when efficient indigenous populations have been eliminated by toxic effects of the contaminants Vogel, ; Aburto-Medina et al. The selection of contaminant-degrading microorganisms is the critical step in bioaugmentation Adams et al.

When using culture media for the isolation of microorganisms with biodegradation potential of specific contaminants, only cultivable cells are selected. The use of enrichment methods which preserve noncultivable microorganisms may be important to expand the biodegradation potential of microbial inoculums, since these members of microbial communities may also be involved in in hydrocarbon biodegradation Zhang et al. Furthermore, in bioaugmentation, the use of mixed cultures offers some advantages over pure cultures, including higher biodegradative capacity both quantitatively and qualitatively higher range of contaminants used as substrates for microbial growth ; greater resistance to toxic substances; increased potential for establishment of positive microbial interactions e.

In addition, the use of consortia with high microbial diversity and functional redundancy increases the chances of survival of populations with the potential for biodegradation of the target contaminants when the inoculant is applied to sites with contrasting characteristics.

Taking in consideration the advantages of microbial consortia for use in bioaugmentation, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of microbial inoculants produced upon enrichment of hydrocarbonoclastic microbial populations in municipal solid waste compost MSWC for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil.

The compost was sieved through a 5-mm mesh sieve and C:N:P ratio was set at additional carbon added as hydrocarbons was considered in calculations. Each treatment was conducted with three replicates. Texture analysis identified the soil as a heavy clay soil. Each inoculant was added to 60 g of dieselcontaminated soil. Three control treatments were. The experiment was conducted with three replicates for each treatment, totaling 36 plots.

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Table 1. Physical and chemical characteristics of the experimental soil. Treatments submitted to respirometric assay for determining the appropriate concentration of inoculants to be added to dieselcontaminated soil. After 97 days, density of heterotrophic bacteria was estimated as previously described.

A non-inoculated treatment was included as control. Each treatment was replicated three times in a completely randomized design.

Enumeration of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and residual TPH in soil were also performed at the end of the respirometric assay h. Extraction period was 6 h. After this, the Tukey a posteriori test was employed using SigmaPlot Treatments with inoculants A and B had higher CO2 emissions than treatments with inoculant MSWCf or the treatment without the addition of inoculants during the initial phase at around hours Figure 1.


After this phase, the cumulative CO2 emission was equal among the non-inoculated soil and soil inoculated with inoculants A and B. Noninoculated treatment control was used as the control. MSWCf received only mineral nutrients at the onset of inoculant production. The inoculated soil showed higher density of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria than the noninoculated control, independently of the type of inoculant Figure 2. For any dose of inoculants, the highest density of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria was obtained in soil inoculated with inoculant MSWCf.

The residual TPH concentration revealed the existence of interactions between the type and dose of inoculants applied to the experimental soil. TPH degradation varied from The TPH degradation in inoculated treatments was greater than in non-inoculated treatment, irrespective of the inoculant and dose used Table 3.

The bacterial count of inoculant A stored under refrigeration remained close to that obtained immediately after its production. Figure 2. Non-inoculated soil control did not receive application of inoculants or MSWC.

The data refers to samples collected at the end of the incubation period in the respirometric assay hours. Table 3. Percentage of TPH degradation in non-inoculated soil control was Figure 3. Density of heterotrophic bacteria in inoculants after storage for 97 days at different temperatures. The storage temperature influenced CO2 emission only in treatments with inoculant A Table 4 , with higher CO2 emissions from diesel-contaminated soil inoculated with the inoculant stored under refrigeration.

The other treatments showed no significant difference in CO2 emission between the storage temperatures. Inoculated treatments showed higher CO2 emissions than non-inoculated treatment, with no significant difference in CO2 emissions between treatments with inoculants stored at room temperature. In treatments with inoculants stored under refrigeration, CO2 emission from soil inoculated with inoculant MSWCf was lower than treatments with inoculants A and B.

There was a significant interaction between the type of inoculant and the storage temperature on the degradation of TPH in diesel-contaminated soil. However, the inoculation favored TPH biodegradation. Inoculation of the soil with the inoculant A was the most effective, resulting in the highest TPH degradation at both the storage temperatures. There was no effect of temperature of storage on the efficiency of inoculant A.

TPH degradation in the treatment with inoculant A stored under room temperature did not differ from that obtained in treatment with inoculant MSWCf stored under the same condition Table 5. Storage of inoculant B at room temperature had a significant negative effect on inoculant efficiency; the opposite was observed with inoculant MSWCf.

The result can be attributed to the differences in the composition of the microbial communities established in the different inoculants.

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The highest density of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria was found in soil inoculated with inoculant MSWCf stored under refrigeration Figure 4.

Storage under refrigeration resulted in higher population densities of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in soil than under room temperature for treatments with inoculants B and MSWCf.

For treatments with inoculant A, there was no effect of temperature of storage on population densities in soil. The inoculated treatments showed higher densities of heterotrophic bacteria than the non-inoculated control Figure 4. Table 4. Table 5. Application of inoculants resulted in high hydrocarbon biodegradation in diesel-contaminated soil removal of up to In non-inoculated soil, TPH removal was The respiratory activity of the soil was influenced by the type of inoculant added to the soil, but not by the dose of inoculant.

The conflicting results between the respirometric and TPH analyses can be explained by the use of other sources of organic carbon added as compost Kuzyakov, , which results in CO2 emissions not originating from hydrocarbon Dilly, The extended lag phase for CO2 emission observed in non-inoculated soil or in soil inoculated with MSWCf not enriched in hydrocarbonoclastic populations may indicate the occurrence of toxic effect of diesel on the indigenous.

Figure 4. In treatments with inoculants A and B, the accumulated CO2 Figure 1 level was higher as compared to treatment with inoculant MSWCf and non-inoculated control during the first h. After this period, a marked increase in CO2 emission was observed in the non-inoculated. The result points to a limitation of carbon source in treatments with inoculants A and B after this period, with a possible adaptation of soil microorganisms to diesel as the carbon source.

Similar results were reported by Sanni et al. The non-inoculated control showed a much lower population density of cultivable bacteria than treatments with inoculants. Diplock et al. We thus speculate that the lower concentration of diesel present in soil mixed with this inoculant compared to inoculants A and B, which received regular diesel applications favored the growth of microbial populations, since diesel has a high concentration of light aromatic hydrocarbons, which is toxic to microbial cells van Dorst et al.

The low molecular weight hydrocarbons induces acute toxic effects on soil microbiota, mostly due to their high solubility and the presence of volatile molecules that can penetrate into cells and alter cellular structures Du et al.

Another problem of diesel-contaminated soil occurs during the catabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons present in diesel. During the metabolism of aromatic compounds, metabolites with higher toxicity than the parent compounds can build up, such as catechol Ntougias et al. In previous studies, the application of a microbial consortium resulted in These high efficiencies of hydrocarbon degradation, even in the noninoculated soil, can be explained by the manner by which the experiment was conducted.

This supposedly prevents oxygen from becoming a limiting factor for the catabolism of hydrocarbons, thereby increasing the efficiency of contaminant biodegradation. The most important biotic factors for bioaugmentation are predation of allochthonous microorganisms added to the environment as well as the competition between these populations and autochthonous indigenous microorganisms van Veen et al.

Abiotic factors include the availability of nutrients, oxygen, temperature, water activity, and pH, among others van Veen et al. Thus, for the bioaugmentation strategy to be successful, the introduced microorganisms must possess adaptive advantages beyond the ability to degrade the contaminants in the soil. Our inoculants were effective because they introduce in the contaminated soils a high diversity of microbial populations that constitute the microbial community of MSWC, including non-cultivable microorganisms, thus increasing the probability of successful.

The presence of non-cultivable microorganisms in inoculants may also extend the metabolic pathways involved in the degradation of complex contaminants. Zhang et al. The storage temperature influenced differently the microbial populations in the inoculants.

Refrigeration had a positive effect on the maintenance of hydrocarbon biodegradation potential for microbial populations present in the inoculants produced with the addition of diesel inoculants A and B. While it is recognized that refrigeration generally enhances microbial viability, in our study, this was not observed for all the inoculants, possibly due to differences in the structure of the microbial communities. The biodegradation potential of inoculant A after 97 days of storage under refrigeration was found to be identical to that obtained immediately after its production Table 3 vs.

High biodegradation potential of this inoculant was also maintained during storage at room temperature. Apparently, frequent exposure to hydrocarbons present in the diesel used for enrichment of hydrocarbonoclastic populations every 4 days resulted in the selection of microbial populations tolerant to other environmental stress or, in other words, the induction of cross-resistance mechanisms.

This phenomenon of cross-resistance to stress factors in microbial populations has been widely reported e. The application of inoculants from MSWC to dieselcontaminated soil provided fast and effective removal of. At lower doses, the use of MSWC along with N and P was found to be efficient for enriching hydrocarbonoclastic microbial populations.

When stored for about days, the inoculant produced with the addition of diesel at every 4 days retained its biodegradation potential.

We conclude that this strategy is the most recommended for production of inoculant to be used in field scale bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soils. Effect of biostimulation, temperature and salinity on respiration activities and bacterial community composition in an oil polluted desert soil. Comparison of indigenous and exogenous microbial populations during slurry phase biodegradation of long-term hydrocarboncontaminated soil. Biodegradation 23 6 : Bioremediation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation: a review.

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Journal of Environmental Management KEKA, Effect of crude oil contamination on the chlorophyll content and morphoanatomy of Cyperus brevifolius Rottb. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 21 : Bioremediation of soil contaminated by diesel oil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 34 supl.

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Current Opinion in Microbiology 8 3 : Solvent tolerance in bactéria: role of efflux pumps and cross-resistance with antibiotics. International Journal Antimicrobial Agents 22 3 : Bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soils: evaluation of potential in situ techniques by study of bacterial degradation.

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African Journal of Microbiology Research 9 7 : LYDY, Bioavailability-based toxicity endpoints of bifenthrin for Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutes. Chemosphere 90 3 : Marine Environmental Research DORR, Assessing the microbial activity of soil samples, its nutrient limitation and toxic effects of contaminants using a simple respiration test.

Chemosphere 53 3 : TAKII, Microbial succession during a composting process as evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Journal of Applied Microbiology 89 5 : A new biostimulation approach based on the concept of remaining P for soil bioremediation. Sources of CO 2 efflux from soil and review of partitioning methods. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38 3 : Effect of hydrocarbon pollution on the microbial properties of a sandy and a clay soil.

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Journal of Applied Microbiology 4 : Dynamics and distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities in oil-contaminated temperate coastal mudflat mesocosms.

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